Archive for the ‘Private Cloud’ Category
Cloud computing is a computing model, where resources such as computing power, storage, network and software are abstracted and provided as services on the Internet in a remotely accessible fashion. Billing models for these services are generally similar to the ones adopted for public utilities. On-demand availability, ease of provisioning, dynamic and virtually infinite scalability are some of the key attributes of cloud computing.
An infrastructure setup using the cloud computing model is generally referred to as the “cloud”. The following are the broad categories of services available on the cloud:
- Infrastructure As A Service (IAAS)
- Platform As A Service (PAAS)
- Software As A Service (SAAS)
Amazon Web Services (AWS) is one of the major players providing IAAS. They have two popular services – Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and Simple Storage Service (S3). These services are available through web services.
An instance is a virtual machine provisioned by OpenStack on one of the nova-compute servers. When you launch an instance, a series of steps are triggered on various components of the OpenStack. During the life cycles of an instance, it moves through various stages as shown in the diagram below:
There are several pre-built images for OpenStack available from various sources. You can download such images and use them to get familiar with OpenStack. You can refer to http://docs.openstack.org/cactus/openstack-compute/admin/content/starting-images.html for details on using such images.
For any production deployment, you may like to have the ability to bundle custom images, with a custom set of applications or configuration. This chapter will guide you through the process of creating Linux images of Debian and Redhat based distributions from scratch. We have also covered an approach to bundling Windows images. Read the rest of this entry »
Installation and configuration
The following section describes how to set up a minimal cloud infrastructure based on OpenStack using 3 machines. These machines are referred to in this and subsequent chapters as Server1 and Server2 and Client1. Server1 runs all the 7 components of Nova as well as Glance and OpenStack dashboard. Server2 runs only nova-compute. Since OpenStack components follow a shared-nothing policy, each component or any group of components can be installed any server.
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Canonical has recently joined OpenStack consortium and has started working actively on adding OpenStack support in Ubuntu. Encouraged by the way users of UEC received our “Eucalyptus Beginner’s Guide, UEC Edition”, we have started working on the book “OpenStack Beginner’s Guide for Ubuntu 11.04, Natty Narhwal” and hope to release all the chapters of the book soon here as articles followed by a pdf version of the book.
V2.0 of Eucalyptus Beginner’s Guide – UEC edition is out. This covers UEC on Ubuntu 10.10 Maverick Meerkat, based on Eucalyptus 2.0. Please download the PDF and post your comments.
We have noticed a few changes in the way Eucalyptus 1.6 (UEC on Ubuntu 10.04 Lucid Lynx) and 2.0 (UEC on Ubuntu 10.10 Maverick Meerkat) launch instances. These changes have an impact on the bundling procedure. This article takes these changes into account and may be helpful for users of UEC on Ubuntu 10.10 and Eucalyptus 2.0
Eucalyptus Machine Image(EMI)
A Eucalpyptus Machine Image(EMI) is a combination of a virtual disk image(s), kernel and ramdisk images as well as an xml file containing meta data about the image. These images reside on WS3 and used as templates for creating instances on UEC. Each Linux EMI is a combination of the following:
- An XML file with a name like “jaunty.img.manifest.xml” with information about one or more hard disk images, a kernel image and a ram disk image (id – emi-65440E7E)
- An XML file with a name like “vmlinuz-2.6.28-11-server.manifest.xml” with information about the corresponding kernel image(id – eki-39FC1244)
- An XML file with a name like “initrd.img-2.6.28-11-server.manifest.xml” with information about the corresponding ramdisk image(id – eri-71ED1322)
Each of these images has its own ID that can be used while running the instances. More on this in the chapter on “Managing Instances” Read the rest of this entry »